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PUBLISHED BY 

THE NATIONAL PHONOGRAPH PUB. CO..LT) 
~ WORLD BUILDING, NEW YORK. 








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SMOKE 



Rockwell’s 

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Durham 

J EVERYMAN’S TOBACCO. 


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None Genuine 
without the Trade 


/ Situated iu the Immediate Section of Country 
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|spare pains nor expense to give the trade 


THE VERY 


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the new york) 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 


k WIT I AST OR, LENCX AND 

I TILOEN FOUN&aTUN*. 

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMP SNTT 


EDISON BUILDING, BROAD ST., NEW YORK, 



ELECTRIC STREET RAILWAYS. 


ELECTRIC LIGHTING--Arc and Incandescent. 

For Streets, Public and Private Buildings, Hotels, Theatres, 
Churches, Steamships, Mills, Factories, Central Stations, etc. 

ELECTRIC GENERATORS--For Light and Power. 

Incandescent, Are, and Electric Power Plants of all descriptions 
^ ancl sizes, for Central Stations, Isolated or Mill Lighting. 

ELECTRIC LAMPS— Incandescent and Arc. 

Edison Incandescent. Lamps of all kinds, to rit any socket. 
All Lampb guaranteed. 

ELECTROLIERS— Electric Light and Gas. 

Electrical Fixtures of Finest Workmanship and Most Artistic 
Design. Combination Fixtures, for Electric Light and Gas. 

“ STATIONARY MOTORS. 

M^lls, Mines, Factories, Warehouses, Elevators, Etc. Motors 
tor. every possible duty. 

INSULATED WIRE— Cables, Conductors, Etc. 

Electric Cables and Conductors (Underground and Aerial) for 
Telephone, Telegraph, Electric Lighting; Flexible Cords, etc. 

\ ' - MAIN DISTRICT OFFICES: 

Canadian District: Dank of Commerce Building , Toronto , Can . 

• Central District: JjJalto Building, Chicago % Jti. 

Eastern District: Edison Budding , Broad Street, Sew York. 

Sew England District: 3S Pearl Street , Boston, Mass. 
- I*<i*'ijic Coast District: Edison Budding , 1 Vi Bush Street 9 San Francisco , Cal. 
Pacific North west District: Ft eischner Budding, Portland , Ore. 

Rocky Mountain District: Masonic Building , Den re r . Col. 

Southern District: JO Decatur Street , Atlanta, tia. 






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Carbon Fapers / Ribbons 

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FOR ALL WRITING MACHINES. 

You will find our goods in use in a large number 

of the best Typewriting Offices 

everywhere. 


Ribbons, 75c. Each, $7.50 Per Dozen. 

No. 1 Carbon Paper, $3.00 Per 100 Sheets. 

QUALITY GUARANTEED SATISFACTORY. 

SEND FOB CIBCT7LAB. AGENCIES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES. 


MEW YORK CARBON AMO TRANSFER PAPER COMPANY, 


Ho. 53 Maiden Lane, 


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EDISOIST LALAN JDE BATTERY 

THE PHONOCRKPH UNO PHONOCRKPH-CRKPHOPHONB. 

***■“■"■ “■ 

130 Sciii* Stout. " C 0 

ipfye \io rtb erttoerican Phonograph (g 

fph* e^mencan Qrapbophone (o 

o9a October 7th, 1890. /<ff 

Edison Manufacturing. 'Cony any, 

19 Dey Street, 

New York City*’* 

GentlemenJ- 

The four (4) *T- cells.^Ediaon Lalande battery, 900 arryefe 
hours, set up in our off ice* ..result ed in running a Phonograph con- 
tinuously for 285 hours* This wo consider an excellent result * 

Yery truly. 

The Eastern Pennsylvania Phonograph Co-j. 


JAMES F. KELLY, (general Sales Agent. 

19 DET STREET- x-r 



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HOW CM 


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°<I FEBRUARY, 1891. 1» 


[No. 2. 


Tai-jle of Contents. 


Tin: Real Mission of the Phonograph, . 

The King of Phonographs, 

A Practical Test, . . 

Drilling by the Phonograph, . 

The Phonograph Album, . ! 

A Frank Confession, 

A Phenomenal Feat in Reporting. 

• 

The Manufacture of Musical Cylinders, 
"Stage Fright” Induced by the Phonograph, 
Th* Tariff on Phonographs, . 


By W. B. St men son. 


By J ttl ia n Ralph , 


By G. //. C, 


The Footprints <4psSound, 


'A’Shtfi.' Trial Heard Through the Phonograph, 
A Nrw Automatic Phonograph, . 

.Tjie French Tariff and Electricity, 
Thei£u4>-Electric Piles and Generators, 

The Founder^ of Electrical Science, 
Electricity in Pjt^jk of Steam, 


By Frank M. Deems, Pit. /)., M. D., 


By F. (A, 

By F. ^Tc Bennett , 


I 4 


By Felix Da/tn, Ph . D., 


By F. Me Bennett , . 

By William J. Hammer , 

• • • 

By E. W. C, . 


The Telegraph ^5 War, 

An Elastic Accumulator, 

^honoc^aphic-Telephonic Transmission. 

The Telephone in Paris, 

•4 ... ,f ... .. 

The First Typewriter. 

* ^ 

Possibilities of the Tweavriter, ..... 
Phonograph Chat, . * . 

V^Mkisi erschafi- System Taught by Phonograph, By Edward J). Easton, 
’ Business Suggestions, 

Authors and Publishers, ...... 

What the People Say, 

Splendid Tributes to the Phonograph, . * 


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THE NORTH AMERICAN PHONOGRAPH CO., 

OWNERS OF THE PATENTS OF THOMAS A. EDISON 

FOR 

Recording, Perpetuating, and Reproducing Articulate Speech, 

and Other Sounds, and Exclusive Agent for 

the Sole Licensee of the 

AMERICAN GRAPHOPHONE COMPANY. 


Principal Offices: 160 to 164 Broadway, New York. 


LOCAL, COMPANIES. 


Name of Company. 
Alabama Phonograph Co 
Columbia •* 
Colorado-Utah " 

Cen’l Nebraska ** 
>-^Chicago Ccn'l “ 

Eastern Penn'a 
Florida 


• • 


• * 


• • 


• • 


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Georgia 
Iowa 
Kansas 
Kentucky 
Michigan 
Missouri 
Minnesota % 
Montana * 
New England 
New York 
Nebraska 
New Jersey 
Ohio 

Old Dominion 
Pacific 


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Spokane 

South Dakota 
■State Phono. Co. of Illinoi 
Texas Phonograph Co. . . 
Tennessee 
West. Penn. • 

Wisconsin 


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West Coast 
Wyoming 


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Address. 

..Anniston. Ala .... 
..Washington. D. C. 
..Denver, Col... 

. . Kearney. Neb. . 
..Chicago, 111... 
..Philadelphia. Pen 
..Jacksonville, Fla. 
..Atlanta. Ga..\.. 
..Sioux City, Iowa. 

. .Topeka, Kan. . . . 

. . Louisville, Tvy . *. . 
..Detroit, Mich .. 

. . St. Louis, Mo.. . . 
..Minneapolis. M 
..Helena. Mont.* 

. Boston. Mass.. 

. . New York, N. Y ’ 
..Omaha, Neb.... 
..Newark. X. J. . 

. .Cincinnati. Ohio. 

..Roanoke. Va 

..San Francisco. Cal 


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. . .Spokane Falls, Wash 

...Sioux Falls. So. Dak 

..Chicago, 111 

. .Galveston, Tex. . 
..Nashville, Tenn. 
..Pittsburgh, Penn 
..Milwaukee. Wis. 

..Portland. Ore... 


Cheyenne, Wy. Ter 

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Territory. 

. . . Alabama. 

. Delaware. Maryland, and Dist. of Col. 
. . Colorado. 

. .Western part of Suite of Nebraska. 
..Cook County. Illinois. 

..Eastern part of State of Pennsylvania. 
. . Florida. 

. .Georgia. 

. Iowa. 

. . Kansas and New Mexico. 

• 

. . Kentucky. 

. .Michigan. 

. . Missouri, Arkansas, and Indian Ter. 
. .Minnesota. 

. . Montana. 

..New England States. 

..New York State. 

. .Eastern part of State of Nebraska. 

. .New Jersey. 

..Ohio. 

..Virginia. North and South Carolina. 
..Arizona. California, and Nevada. 

j Oregon. East +£ long. d Idaho 
i Washing n. “44 
..South Dakota. 

. .Suite of Illinois, exclusive of Cook Co. 
. .Texas. 

. .Tennessee. 

. .West, part State Pa. and W. Virginia. 
. . Wisconsin. 

I Oregon, West of 44 0 long. 

• * ) Washing n. “ “ 44* “ 

. . Wyoming. 


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A magazine devoted to all interests connected with the re- 
cording ol sound, the reproduction End preservation of speech, 
the Telephone, the Typewrite r, and t he progress of Electricity. 

published monthly. 

TERMS : 

ONE YEAR, - - - • $1.00 

SINGLE NUMBERS. 10 

Pos tagf id, 

V. H. McRAE, Manager, 

Pulitzer Building, R 00 0^127. NEW YORK. 

ADVERTISEMENTS. 

THE Phonogram, having special facilities in its circulation 
through the vUst commercial system occupied by the Phono- 
graph. Telephone, and other Electrical! Devices, presents an 
exceptionally valuable advertising medium. The rates arc rea- 
sonable and will be furnished on appli cation. 

CORRESPONDENCE 

relating to the Phonogpoph, Typewriter, or Electricity, In any 
of their practical applications, is cordially invited, and the cooper- 
ation ot all electrical thinkers and workers earnestly desired. 


Cle;utJ:oncisc, w«jJi-*’ulUn ^rtiflcs arc especially welcome; and 
communications, views, no\vs items, local new 
or any information likely to interest clectrici 
fully received and checrfufly acknowledged. 


newspaper ^clip^ings. 


The Retfl Mission of the Phonograph. 

— * 

Wk believe that we ran utter fio truer words of 
•counsel to the many phonograpn*<ompanies now 
in the United States, than when we urge them to 
mike the genuine and legitimate use of the 
phonograph paramount to all of its attractive 
qualities as a mere coiiwn-the-slot device for the 
temporary admiration of the multitude. 

To a certain degree, the advertisement which 
the instrument has derived by reason of its exhi- 
bition in public places, has proved advantageous 
artd even profitable, hut the gain is by no means 
commensuraj.q with that which will accrue when 
the phonograph is adopted in the counting-rooms, 
offices and libraries of the merchants and profes- 
sional men of the country, and is regarded as 
something more than the toy and plaything of 
women and children. 

The real mission of the phonograph is that of a 


helper. Its life and greatness among the labor-sav- 
ing mechanisms of the world will depend on this 
fact. It is a humanized bunch of iyon -nerves and 
sinews that has come among us to relieve the 
world more or less, of mental strain; to bring the 
world's workers in closer contact with the means 
of multiplying their power, saving time, and pre- 
serving that which, without it, would escape all 
record; to give to men, women and children alike 
the inestimable privilege of hearing repeated the 
41 thoughts that breathe and words that burn." 

To the capitalist, merchant or public man whose 
desire it is to preserve his secrets from publicity, 
the phonograph is his confidential secretary. It 
requires no human intermediary, whose fearless 
gossip may be bought or sold, to interpret what 
its intelligent ear has heard; its confidence is re- 
served for the master and his friend. In the si- 
lence of his study the minister may whisper the 
themes of his morrow’s sermon; the lawyer pre- 
pare his brief; in the sick-room the invalid may 
dictate his last will and wishes, and feel' that the 
tones of his voice will be a sweet heritage to 
those he may leave behind; to the reporter, whose 
business it is to transcribe the speeches of the 
orator, it is a boon for which there is no equiva- 
lent. It was printed only the other day, that the 
marvelous debates in Congress, covering as they 
sometimes do from twelve to twenty hours, can 
only be reproduced in the next ensuing Congres- 
sional Record through the agency of the phono- 
graph. 

Yet in the face of all this combination of valu- 
able use, this ability to lessen the labor of men 
and women, our little iron confidante and friend, 
that we may awaken in the night and talk and 
listen to as if it were another self, is ‘disparaged 
and humiliated 'by .being placed side by side with 
the nickel-in-the-slot weighing machines, and 








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34 


THE PHONOGRAM. 


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every other speculative attraction of a circus show 
or a bar room, in order that it may turn an honest 
penny. 

■ v V^e repeat, therefore, that the companies which 
have been organized throughout the United States 
are doing themselves injustice when they limit 
their operations to the introduction of the phono- 
graph in places where its novelty will quickly dis- 
appear and its profits cease to count. 

We are aware this vein of reflection will arouse 
the enmity of small men. Indeed, a mere hint in 
the direction we are aiming, which appeared in 
the last number of The Phonogram .provoked 
James. L. Andcm, the President and General 
Manager of the Ohio Phonograph Company, to 
write to us: “ We do not care to subscribe to and 
pay for a magazine which promtilg-alcs views the 
exact opposite of those we entertain in regard to 
our own business#.and to aid in circulating such a 
magazine;" but we wish to say to Mr. Andem, 
and all others like him, that men who cannot stand 
honest argument without flinching, and who show 
the weakness of their intellectual fibre by refusing 
support to a magazine which they cannot sec is 
practically their own weapon of defense and of- 
fense, do not fitly represent the mighty power 
that is latent in the phonograph and awaiting the 
development at the hands of real men whose 
brains arc above five cents’* worth of cheap music 
doled out in gin shops by this much-disparaged 
and misunderstood instrument. 

V • 

It is the mission of this magazine to teach the 
masses the great things which the phonograph is 
intended to accomplish. The pleasure it affords 
is one thing. Its work as a lafipr-saver is another. 
The Phonogram plants its standard in the broad 
road that leads to the grander results. 

V V. H. McRae. 


The King of Phonographs. . 

The nineteenth century, having arrogated to 
itself the right to peer into the arcana of nature, 
study her secret elements and force them to sub- 
mit to her will, has asserted and maintained an 
individuality far exceeding that of her sister cen- 
turies. 

This is the century of grand inventions. And 
what a record it shows! From steam to electric- 
ity, light, sound, explosive agents— each force 
thoroughly exploited and subdued. The latest 
comet on the horizon of this wonderful system is 
the new phonograph. Not content with enacting 
the role of a recorder, a repeater of sonorous ora- 
torical periods, dry law or tedious statistics, 
entering boldly the domain of the nymph Echo» 


and imitating al! her pretty reverberations; con- 
veying to you in solemn tones the last words of 
the dying; soothing your ear with the melodies of 
skilled vocalists or the combined strains of a full 
orchestra, one would suppose that it had usurped 
functions sufficient to entitle it to the well-earned 
title of King of machines. Yet it still goes on 
conquering and to conquer. Its last arena is the 
court-room and the halls of legislative assemblies. 
In the first, it unerringly reflects the contradictory 
statements of the perjured witness and the double- 
dealing lawyer: this fact will come to be known in 
lime by the * coi polloi of every class, and they will 
be more guarded when the formidable detective 
stands near with eager, open- ear to catch their 
utterances. 

In the latter, its warning presence will consti- 
tute a salutary check to the unscrupulous state- 
ments of the partisan, the inane platitudes of the 
empty-headed politician, or the high-handed rul- 
ings of the newly fledged official leader. 

The phonograph soon i > be presented to the 
public is so contrived as to have its powers of 
catching and reconveying sounds " manifolded," 
if I may employ a technical term. It' resembles, 
in the wonderful world of sound, one of those 
gigantic lenses used in modern telescopes which 
sweeps the heavens, and lakes in objects hitherto 
undiscovered to the human eye, and lays bare the 
secrets of the starry system. 

I see but one single function remaining to be 
filled by this magic instrument, which is, to seek 
the sunny South and let a mocking-bird pour into 
its capacious throat the whole marvelous reper- 
toire of which he holds the keys. That will in- 
deed be "something new under the sun." 

• ♦ • - - 

In the second issue of our magazine we are en- 
abled to report to our readers a progress in the 
development of those qualities inherent in the 
phonograph, which bring it to a degree of perfec- 
tion hitherto unconceived by the world; and a 
marked extension of scope and improvement in 
detail on the part of its coadjutor, The Phono- 
gram. 

Every wave of information sent out by the 
press to the civilized inhabitants of the globe car- 
ries back to its starting point a reflex wave of in- 
telligence. This is, of course, not designed or pre- 
concerted, but is clearly the effect of a natural law. 
Correspondents, patrons, friends, all become a 
medium of communication, and thus reciprocity 
is established. In this way The Phonogram per- 
forms a double duty for its public, and ascertains 
a fact of great interest to all connected with the 


35 


THE PHONOGRAM. 


instrument or its representative; viz., that there 
are vast numbers of intelligent people in our 
country, wholly unacquainted with the uses and 
sphere of the phonograph, who are most desirous 
to acquire full information as to its capabilities. * 
This fact suggests a wide field of effort to all 
who wish to promote the success of the phono- 
graph, and its organ, Ths Phonogram. 


We therefore, as the pilot directing the course 
of the vessel, counsel those engaged in executing 
the movements necessary for its safe-conduct, to 
strain every nerve in order to sustain the pub- 
lication which has evoked this important intel- 
ligence, as it is the resolute and unflagging oars- 
man that conducts the boat in triumph first to 
the goal. 


A PRACTICAL TEST. 


The following has just l»cen received, and is 
such a strong endorsement of the position we have 
taken in ouf editorial, that ‘we are glad of the op- 
portunity to present it to our readers, as a practi- 
cal exemplification of our own ideas on the subject. 
It is a letter from the proprietor of Stevenson's 
Phonographic Exchange; Chicago, 111. He writes: 

To the Editor of the Phonogram; 

Dear Sir . — The application of the pho- 
nograph to business uses is of such recent 
origin that any information in regard to its 
operation and the methods of applying it, 
can hardly, fail to be of interest to the ma- 
jority of your readers. That the phono- 
graph is a thoroughly practical, useful bus- 
iness machine is beyond any question; but 
to a large extent it may be said that many 
' the methods of applying it are, as yet, 
* theoretical and experimental, and of course 
liable to considerable change as the ma- 
chine grows in public favor. 

So far, the method which the writer has 
found mosV^uccessful is what may be call- 
ed ^he Contract System of Typewriting Ser- 
vice; that is, we make a contract to place 
at the service of customers a phonograph, 
* _ ancFto furnish them with typewritten tran- 
scripts of their dictation to same, to a cer- 
tain amount daily for a given sum per 
month, collecting and returning cylinders 
with transcripts as often as may be neces- 
sary to meet the requirements of individual 
cases. 

During the greater part of 1890 I have 
given this method and the phonograph as 
thorough and complete a test as could weH 


be desired by any one. My list of custom- 
ers includes architects, editors, advertising 
agents. Board of Trade men, lecturers, re- 
porters, surgical instrument and physicians’ 
supply houses, etc., etc., and the following 
outline of a day’s work may l>e taken as a 
fair sample of the daily test to which I 
have subjected the machine during that 
time : 

The first lot of cylinders received are 
from the editor of a railway newspaper, and 
contain short editorials for the next issue of 
his paper. The first item deals with the 
construction of the first railway in Siam; 
the next, with the great activity in railway 
construction in Brazil; another, with the 
construction of an electric railway, for mail 
purposes only, between Buenos Ayres and 
Monte Video, across the La Platte River; 
then the construction of a railway along the 
Congo River in Central Africa, from Stanley 
Pool to Stanley Falls;* and now the subject 
of railway sanitation and hygiene occupies 
the attention and ability of the operator; 
followed by an article on the financial situ- 
ation. 

The next lot of cylinders comes from an 
architect’s office, and contains mason’s and 
carpenter’s specifications for the erection of 
a new 14-story building, introducing a great 
many technical terms which try the vocab- 
ulary of the operator to the utmost. 

• Another lot of cylinders comes from a 
surgical instrument and physicians’ supply 
house, and contains general correspondence 
.regarding orders for instruments and drugs 


36 




THE PHONOGRAM. 


with dreadful Latin names, but they are dis- 
posed of by the operator in a manner that 
proves entirely satisfactory to the parties 
who dictated them. 

Our next supply comes from an advertis- 
ing agent, whose correspondence is some- 
what easier to handle, although many 
strange words and phrases are used that one 
would hard.ly expect to find clinging to a 
simple “ ad.” 

A civil engineer, whose letters are full of 
references to “ single span,” “ double span ” 
“bridges,” “steel girders,” “plates,” “iron 
roofs,” “stringers,” “brackets,” “ I beams,” 
etc., supplies the next lot of cylinders. 

By this time we have got pretty well along 
in the afternoon, and our next “ consign- 
ment of talk ” comes from a Board of Trade 
firm. We are soon dancing about in the 
wheat and corn pits, now writing a bearish 
and anon a bullish letter. 

From these prosaic subjects we turn with 
pleasure to attend to the correspondence of 
the secretary of a popular musical club, 
which closes the day's work, and we depart 
home feeling that we have added something 
to our store of knowledge 1 and at the same 
time done a good day's work. 

Having had over eight years’ experience 
as a practical stenographer aifd typewriter, 
I feel competent to judge afiKto the merits 
of the phonograph as a stenographer. It is 
undoubtedly a wonderfully perfect machine, 
capable of doing all that its investor claims 
for it, and destined to follow th(^ typewriter 
into every business office. I confess that I 
am an enthusiast, but a practical enthusiast, 
as will be seen from the above recital, and 
.nothing pleases me better than to be seated 
alongside my No. 2 typewriter with a good 
round voice to transcribe. The phonograph 
is a continual incentive to increased speed 
on the typewriter; great speed has already 
been developed on the Remington, but with 
the increasing use of the phonograph great- 
er efficiency may be looked for from the 
average operator than is the case at the 
present time. 


Drilling by the Phonograph. 


An interesting experiment was made 
at the Washington Light Infantry Armory 
severa evenings ago, in the National 
Capital, after the conclusion of the lec- 
ture, to determine whether it is not feasi- 
ble to use the phonograph in armories for 
the purpose of giving music to the com- 
panies while drilling. The experiment was 
tried by the representative of Edison's pho- 
nograph, wKb is confident that the music 
played into the phonograph by the Marine 
Band can be reproduced loud enough to be 
heard distinctly in the largest hall. General 
Ordway is much interested in the experi- 
ment, believing that it will be invaluable in 
teaching men the correct step, and cadence. 

The object of the experiment is an eco- 
nomical one only. It is impossible to use 
the band as often for the purpose of instruc- 
tion as would be necessary to give the les- 
sons all around, since the cost would be an • 
extremely heavy one. Should the phono-, 
graph music suffice, each guardsman can 
have all the music marching drills he needs 
at a very small expense to the guard. 

The Phonograph Album. 

A photoc-rath of the human voice is 
much more valuable to the curious collector 
than a picture of the face, even when •ac- 
companied by an autograph. A favor- 
ite phase of the phonograph furore is the 
collection of specimens of recitations or 
singing from popular artists of the stage, . 
and one gentleman of this city has secured 
cylinders representing vocally nearly every 
artist of any note who has been seen here 
for the last year. The collection is unique, 
because many of the records have no dupli- 
cate in existence, and the owner can give a 
six-hours’ entertainment in his own house 
at any time, presenting the different artists, 
whose voices he has “bottled up,” so to 
speak, in some of their most popular and 
Successful roles. 



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BY JULIAN RALPH. 


have no fear as to the sagacity of their 


HKN I was asked to contribute 
to the Phonogram, I plagued 
myself with a cross-examina- 
tion that lasted more than a 
week in an effort to hit upon a 
subject upon which to write. As writing is 
my profession, the experience is an uncom- 
.mqp one, yet at the end of the ordeal I was 
as barren of a suggestion as at the outset. 

In desperation I read the Phonogram for 
inspiration. The little magazine surprised 
me. If gave to at least this one voracious 
reader of current literature more timely, 
serviceable, and intensely interesting in- 
formation than any single number of any 
periodical 1 have read in many years. 

The editor of the Phonogram will read 
this without having had the slightest pre- 
vious notiop what my choice of a subject 
wa^ k u be, and therefore the general reader 
will understand that if what I set down here 
is high prais^ of this publication the com- 
mendation is general and sincere; indeed it 
is wrung from me against the protest of my 
• judgment and habit. But the fact that im- 
presses me is that if the founders of the 
Phonogram followed the usual professional 
habit of starting a paper 44 to meet a de- 
mand,” or 44 a long-felt want,” they need 

~ t ‘ 37 


prompting. 1 had considered myself gen- 
cnerally well-informed, but the first number 
of this monthly convinced me that 1 knew 
very little more about the subject to which 
it is devoted than a new-lx>m kitten compre- 
hends of the higher mathematics. I learned 
that the phonograph has l>een practically 
applied to manifold forms of ever)- -day ser- 
vice to every-day men; that it is creeping 
close to myself in my own work-a-day life; 

• that its uses interest the business man in the 
same degree that they affect those who fol- 
low a score of the professions, and that in 
the family circle, by the bedside of the sick 
and dying, on the plains and in the amuse- 
ment halls it has assumed a place and value 
such as must give it rank among the won- 
ders of the century we are closing and of - 
the age whose threshold we are but passing. 

It was news to me that, in every forecast of 
the future, I must consider the part the 
phonograph is going to play, with a certain- 
ty that it will hold an important place in 
most phases of human action. Speech is 
the most unique gift to man, and its mar- 
velous mimic, the phonograph, is adding to 
its usefulness and its importance in ways 1 
had not dreamed of. 












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3 « 


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THE PHONOGRAM. 


To descend from gravity for an instant, I 
must confess that what I have read of the 
wonders of the phonograph suggests to my 
mind a train of terrors that may spring from 
it. When the instrument is in as general 
use as the pen and ink are, fancy what may 
happen. Fancy the anguish of a hot-tem- 
pered man who, when he explodes with 
wrath over a torn buttonhole, or chides his 

wife for giving his oldest, and therefore his 

~ * ^ 

best-beloved, coat to the poor, is called 
into her boudoir to hear the family phono- 
graph reel off the very language, the very 
voice he used when, in plighting his troth to 
her, he swore by Dan Cupid that he would 
never — or that he would forever — you under- 
stand. According to the Phonogram, 
sweethearts will have these instruments by 
them, and they will treasure and use them 
as wives. Fancy, too, the state of mind of 
the wife of the. future when^her husband, 
after rejecting her pancakes with contempt- 
uous language, hies hiip to his phonograph 
to read to her the recipe for buckwheat 
cakes which his dying mother spoke into the 
machine with her last brdath. 

But to be serious: If the Phonogram 
gives one person in ten as much pleasure or 
knowledge as its first isaie gave me it will 
indeed meet a long-felt wont, and all who 
are concerned in popularising the invention 
will have reason to bless the day that the 
little messenger was started.' 

A Phenomenal Feat In Reporting. 


T h k fol lo wi ng f r< >m t he Commercial A </- 
vertiser of January 20, is interesting, show- 
ing as it does how great an aid the phono- 
graph is to stenographic reporters. It may 
not be generally known, but it is a fact that 
the phonograph has been in use in l»oth 
Houses of Congress for over two years, as 
an auxiliary to the regular reporters. 

The greatest feat of reporting that has 
ever been performed by the official report- 
ers of Congress was that of preparing ttle 
Senate report for the Record Wednesday 


night. The chief reporter is ill, and only 
two men were available to do the work. 
The Senate was in session for fourteen 
hours, all of which time was spent in an 
active discussion of the Silver Bill. It was 
after 12 o’clock at night when they ad- 
journed, and during the session they had 
talked over 120,000 words. Two stenog- 
raphers took the report and, by dictating 
their notes into phonographs, for typewriters 
to transcribe, they had all the copy ready 
for the printers by S o’clock in the morning, 
and the Record was on the desks of the 
Senators when Congress convened. 

— ■ - • ♦ • — - 

The Manufacture of Musical Cylinders. 

% 

EING requested by the man- 
ager of one of the local 
companies to give some 
points on the making of 
musical records, we cheer- 
fully comply. In order to 
be able to do so, we have carefully in- 
vestigated the subject, and find that there 
are no new features in this business, ex- 
cepting those which Mr. Edison has de- 
veloj>ed, and which he proposes to put into 
practical use at some future time. He has 
been experimenting for a long time in this 
direction, and can now make musical and 
other records such as orations, Jectures, 
et^., far superior to anything that has ever* 
heretofore been produced. In order, how- 
ever, to prepare for doing this business 
properly, it will be necessary to invest a 
large sum of money in a plant, which would 
not l>e justified by the present condition of 
the musical-record business, owing to the 
fact that so many of the local companies 
are trying to make these records for them- 
selves; this being the case, the parent com- 
pany does not see its way clear to take ad- 
vantage of the improvements Mr. Edison 
has made, but we are told that if the local 
companies should unite in a request to the 
ixirent company to do so, and would agree 
to desist from the manufacture of the same 



THE PHONOGRAM. 


39 


themselves, arrangements would be speedily 
made for the establishment of a manufac- 
tory of such records under Mr. Edison's 
personal direction, and we have little doubt 
but that perfection of quality together with 
cheapness of production would soon be 
reached. Until that is done, however, we 
cannot see any encouragement for improve- 
ments in this line. 

• 

44 Stage Fright” Produced by the Phonograph. 

HE first appearance of an 
actor, or singer before 
the phonograph is a study 
by itself, and well worth 
r the observation of a 
- student of human na- 
ture. It would natu- 
rally be supposed that these people, who 
pass their lives in the glare of publicity, 
wojjld approach the machine with the same 
sang froid and self-possession which char- 
acterizes them on the stage, and, in most 
cases, this is a fact. But some of the most 
collected of them when before an audience, 
become victims of “stage fright" before 
Che phonograph, and when they succumb to 
.this it is most difficult to secure a good rec- 
orclT- Scores of actors and actresses have 
stood before the large horns attached to 
phonographs, who never felt the slightest 
qm^er when facing an audience, but who. 
when subjected to this ordeal, have become 
like bashful ^schoolboys forced by a stem 
master to “ speak their first piece" on a 
seven-by-ten platform. 

The collection referred to above includes 
O'oice phonographs of actors and actresses, 
ranging from such men as Jefferson and 
Florence to the smaller artists of the variety 
stage. In the cas£ of Jefferson and 
Florence the collector took his phonograph 
to the dressing-room of Mr. Jefferson dur- 
ing an engagement at Palmer’s. The 
veteran actor 'listened to the reproduc- 
tions of some songs and recitations, half- 
clad in the costume of Dr. Pangloss, and 


painting his face to the proper make-up the 
while. Mr. Florence stepped into the room 
and listened, too, and lx>th finally consented 
to give a portion of the scene from “ The 
Rivals," in which Sir Lucius O’Trigger is 
arranging with Bob Acres the details of the 
proposed duel. There was not the slightest 
evidence of “stage fright" exhibited by 
these two finished artists. They were as 
easy and natural, as they stood before the 
big-mouthed horn, as they are upon the 
stage. Mr. Florence began with the snatch 
of song, 11 For He loved a Bold Dragoon," 
and the two men fastened their dialogue 
upon the cylinder until Jefferson ended with 
the speech, “You oughtn’t tb talk to a man 
like that, at a time like this, to a man like 
that.” The peculiar high voice of Jefferson 
and the rich brogue of Florence were all ac- 
curately recorded, and can now be produced 
at will by the owner of the cylinder. Jef- 
ferson and Florence may be thousands of 
miles away, but their voices are held firmly 
here in New York, and their little bit of ex- 
quisitely funny dialogue from “ The Rivals " 
can be repeated at any time with as much 
effect as though the two noted actors were 
present to recite it. 

% ♦ 

The Tariff on Phonographs. 


Congress and the custom-house officers 
are threatened with a new tariff difficulty in 
the shape of the phonograph. And it is 
easy to see that so remarkable an invention 
must have a material influence on the com- 
mercial relations of men. Its peculiarity isf 
that its value as a commodity will depend 
entirely bn what it contains. A phono- 
graph charged with the mongrel music 
of an amateur would have no other value 
than that of the wax and other material of 
which the instrument was composed. But 
stocked with a speech of Gladstone, Bis- 
marck or the pope, or a song by Patti, of a 
new opera by Verdi, it would have a large 
cash value, and as such would seem to be 
• within the field of taxable imports. 





( 


THE FOOTPRINTS OF SOUND. 


BV FRANK M. DEEMS. M. D.. PH. V 




CCOM PAN VING this ar- 
tide is a picture of the 
footprints of sound: in 
this case, of articulate 
speech. Does the 
phrase seem a fanciful 
one? If so, be assured that the picture 
represents not only the footprints of sound, 
but the shadows of an echo as well. In 
other* words, it is a micro-photograph- of a 
record — a phonogram taken from an Kd- 
ison phonograph cylinder. For the benefit 
of such readers as are not familiar with Mr. 
Kdison's wonderful tone- recorder, let me 
explain in detail, step by step, how this pic- 


v_ 




• Fio. i . 4 

ture was produced. Hut before so doing I 

will draw a parallel between the phorograph 

and the human ear. I'p to a certain point 

there is a striking similarity between the 

mechanical construction of the phonograph 

and the structure of the human car. This 

will be better shown bv a reference to the 

• 

acc unpanying diagram of the ear (Fig. i). 
The outer ear is funnel-shaped; it is, in 
fact, a natural hearing - trumpet. '1 his 
serves the purpose of collecting the vibra- 
tions of the atmosphere which constitute 
sound, condensing and conducting it. In 
the phonograph there i> a corresponding 
funnel for the same purjxjstf. At the l»ot- 


tom of the outer car • funnel there is a 
membrane, a beautiful structure a little 
thicker than gold-beaters’ skin. This is 
the tympanum, or, as it is more commonly 
called, the 44 drum of the ear.” At the l>ot- 
tom of the phonograph speaking-tube! and 
corresponding exactly to the ear-drum, 
there is a small circular piece of thin micro- 
scopic cover-glass called the diaphragm. In, 
the car there is attached to the inner sur- 
face of the ear-drum a movable chain of 
three small tones, called the 44 hammer,” 
the 44 anvil,” and the 44 stirrup,” from their 
close resemblance to the objects above men- 
tioned. These three little bones are so ar- 
ranged and connected that we may regard 
them, as a whole, as a compound lever auto- 
matically operated by two small muscles. 
This chain of l>oucs serves a double pur- 
pose: it keeps the ear-drum gently on a 
stretch, but delicately adjusting it to each 
varying impulse with which the air comes 
laden, tightening it so that it thrills to every 
whisper, loosening it against the injurious 
effects of sounds too loud. Hut they serve 
a yet more important purpose : they receive 
the vibrations from the ear-drum to which 
they are attached, and convey them cross 
the cavity of the inner ear to the nervous 
expansionsof the auditory, or hearing nerve. 
In the phonograph the part corresponding to 
this chain of tones is called the stylus, or 
engraving jien. It consist of a little hinged 
lever cemented to the under surface of the 
thin glass diaphragm. It is tipped with a 
point of sapphire. This sapphire point, be- 
ing exceedingly hard, never loses its shape 
or polish by wearing away, or from corro- 
sion. It is not necessary to go into the com- 
plicated but wonderfully beautiful arrange- 
ment of the auditory nerve: suffice it to snv, 
that in the phonograph the wax cylinder 
takes the place of the nerve and brain. So. 
we see, there is really a close analogy bc- 


i 


3 


/ 


-1 

* 

THE PHONOGRAM. 


tween the mechanism of the phonograph and 
the anatomical structure of the ear. Now, 
similarity of structure implies similarity of 
function, and, up to a certain point, their 
modus -operand^ their action is alike. 
Sounds are made; in the case of hearing, 
the funnel-like outer ear collects and con- 
denses these atmospheric vibrations, and 
they beat against the stretched membrane 
of the ear-drum, and it vibrates ; as it does 
so it sets the movable chain of l>ones at- 
tached to it into similar vibrations, and 
they pass these vibrations on to the ex- 
panded portion of the auditory nerve, 
where they are registered as sensations, and 
these sensations being transmitted to the 



Fig. 2 . 


brain, axe in some mysterious way trans- 
lated into* conscious sound, which is hear- 
ing. In the case’. of- the phonograph, the 
speaking- funnel collects the atmospheric- 

vibrations which constitute sound, and thev 

_ ’ * 

beat against the thin glass diaphragm, and 
it vibrates 7 as it does so it sets the sap- 
1 phire-pointed stylus attached to it into sim- 
ilar vibrations, and this point engraves these 
vibrations upon the surfaqf of a revolv- 
ing wax cylinder, in the form of indentations 
. more or less deep, according to the loudness 
oi. the sound, and closer together or further 
apart according to the pitch of the sound 
and the rate of the movements of the cylin- 
der. These indentations are what I have 


4 * 

ventured to call the footprints of sound. 
Now, these minute spiral lines of indenta- 
tions made by sound-waves can be photo- 
graphed by using a microscope lens in the 
camera, and that is called a micro-photo- 
graph. Such a micro-photograph is the il- 
lustration (Fig. 2 ) in this article, and which 
I have ventured to call the shadows of an 
echo. Of course, they can l>e almost in- 
definitely enlarged, and each tiny footprint 
of a sound could be made as large as a cart- 
wheel, if that were of any use. Yes, the 
phonograph is first an ear, and then a whole 
vocal apparatus — larynx, throat, tongue and 
all— and Thomas A. Edison is still the “Wiz- 
ard of Llewellyn Park ” 

A Memorial Heard Through a Phonograph. 

A short time before Browning's death 
Miss Ferguson, at the studio of Mr. Ru- 
dolph Lehmann, succeeded in persuading 
him to speak into a phonograph. The lines 
he spoke into the instrument were a portion 
of his own poem, “ How they brought the 
good news from Ghent to Abe.” The in- 
strument, not being human, which never lies 
and never exaggerates or changes when it 
repeats what has been told it, proved that 
Browning spoke the first two lines, 

*' I jumped in the saddle, and Joris and he; 

" I galloped, Dick galloped, we galloped all 
three," 

straight off; but when he came to the third 
line there was a stumble, and presently came 
the words, " I forget.” He tried to reir.em- 
l>er the line, which every schoolboy through- 
out the English-speaking world can repeat 
without the slightest hesitation, but he 
broke down again. The instrument repeat- 
ed the apology he made for forgetting his 
own poems, and the eulcgv he delivered on 
Edison and what he termed his “wonderful 
invention." Then there was a ]>ause, while 
the cylinder continued to revolve, and pres- 
ently came a loud “Robert Browning,” as * 
if the poet had, with his own voice, signed 
his name to the effort. 




t 



A NEW AUTOMATIC PHONOGRAPH. 


T HE Automatic Phonograph Exhibition 
Co., which controls the patents of the 
« Nickel-in-the-Slot," is putting out a new 
machine (as shown in our illustration) which 
is a great improvement over the old one, of 
which there were about 750 in use from 
Maine to Montana. 


lose the nickel, even if the instructions on 
the card are not followed. 

An important feature of the new machine 
is that plugs, wads, buttons, etc., will not 
work, and only an exact counterfeit of a 
nickel in weight, and size will operate the 
phonograph. 


. The advantages of the new machine are 
as follows: First, starting the machine with 
a crank instead of the side push liar; with 
this arrangement it is impossible for the 
machine to get out of adjustment. The 
second new feature introduced is that, in- 
serting the nickel requires the playing of 
the entire selection by the phonograph. 

In the new machine electric current is not 
started — that is, the connect ion is not made 
until the last moment, and the battery pow- 
er is never wasted. I: is also impossible to 

I I • 


The factory is now running night and day 
to supply new machines in place of the old 
style. The receipts show no |iereeptible 
decrease or increase, but in some special 
cases, favored by location, some machines 
' pay as much as $24 in one day. The re- 
ceipts increase or diminish in various ma- 
chines, as the records, which arc changed 
daily, are good or mediocre — like a*theatri- 
cal production — “ a good show drawing a 
full house,” and different localities require 
different attractions. 


1 





“Ocean Telegraphy”; A. («. Bell, “Tele- 
phone”; C. F. Brush, “ Arc Light^; T. A. 
Edison, “ Incandescent Light "; Prof. Klihu 
Tomson, “ Electric Welding”; Henry- M. 
Whitney, “ Electric Railways.” 


The French Tariff and Electricity 


T'hk French Chamber of Electrical In- 
dustries has adopted a report of its Com- 
mittee on T ariff, recommending the advocacy 
before the government of the following as 
the minfma rates of duties on electrical ap- 
paratus in the revision of the French Com- 
mercial 'Treaties to g<r into effect after 

February i, 1892. A n v*l 

Dynamo electric machines weighing 

more thairt 2 lbs 10 ^ 

Arc lamps, known as regulators. ... 10^ 

mcandescfcfit»fc#m|)s 20< 

Cfayons for .arc lamps io< 

Accumulators 

Electric .'cables 5# 

Inductors for dynamo machines 20$ 

Bobbins, full or not, made of metal, 

covered with copper wike,insulated. 20# 

Parts made of copper weighing less 
than 1 kilogr.*(2.2 lb.), numbered 
or marked, either set up or sep- 
arate, intended for electric ma- 
chines s. . r. 150 fr. per 220 lbs. 

• • — 

As important meeting of the members of 
the National Elect yc Light Association will 
be held at Providence, R. I., on ^February 
17, 18, 10. This will l»e the thirteenth ses- 
sion "bf this society, and an effort is being 
made to have the following distinguished 
men speak on their specialties: Dr. N’orvin 
(ireen on “Telegraphy”; Cyrus W. Field, 


Thermo-electric Piles and Generators 


From the following facts a good idea may 
be had of the relative values of thermo-elec- 
tric piles and dynamos worked by gasometers 
for the transmission of thermic energy con- 
tained in gaslight into electric energy. All 
the experiments made with the latter show 
a consumption of over 3.051 cub. in. per 
watt-hour, or, say 1,060 cu. feet j>er kilo- 
watt-hour. A well -constructed gasometer 
will consume from 21 to’24CU. ft. of gas 
per horse-hour, and can yield 600 watts 
available on a dynamo whose product does 
not exceed 85 per cent., which under the 
most favorable conditions equals 61 cu. in. 
per watt-hour or 35.3 cu. ft. per kilowatt- 
hour. Hence, for a given amount of elec- 
tric energy a gow^thcrmo-electric pile will 
consume about 30 times more gas than a 
generator made up of a gasometer and a 
dynamo. Moreover, there is no thermo- 
electric pile on sale whose available power 
exceeds 10 to 12 watts, whereas gasometers 
are regularly made of 100 horse-hour. 









BY FELIX DAHN. l‘H. D 


No. i.— WILLIAM GILBERT 


THU PHOXOGRA Jt 


45 


electricity before Gilbert’s time. The Greek 
word for aml>er is elekfron , hence Gilbert 
called its attractive property electricity. But 
very little more was known of magnetism 
than of electricity. 

The ancients knew that in Magnesia in 
Asia Minor there were certain black stones 
which possessed the remarkable property pf 
attracting to themselves bits of iron and 
steel. They called them 44 magnets ” from the 
name of the locality whence they came. 
They found that • 
an elongated 
piece of such a 
stone, if suspend- 
ed by a thread, 
would always 
point north and 
south. T h e y 
called such bod- 
ies “loadstones" 

(leading - stone). 

'There we have 
the whole sum 
of the knowledge 
of magnetism 
that the ancients 

■IF 

possessed. 

•; dtv 1600 Gilbert 
published his re- 
searches, where- 
in he showed 

• 

that other bod- 
ies, some twenty 
at least, jhjss^ss- 
ed similar attrac- 
tive power when 

rutted, as did the amber of the ancients. 
He called them electrics. But it was as 
to magnets and magnetism that he made 
his more valuable % and interesting inves- 
tigations. 1 le discovered the polarity of nat- 
ural magnets, and he called them “poles," 
and considered the laws of polarity. He 
discussed the grouping of iron filings 
about the poles of magnetic bars, and made 
the distinction between magnets and mag- 
netic bodies. He made all kinds of artifi- 


cial magnets. Gilbert also propounded the 
astonishing discover}* that the earth itself is 
a. huge magnet; that its magnetic poles 
coincide very nearly with its geographical 
poles, and that, therefore, it causes the com- 
pass needle (itself a little magnet), to place 
itself when freely suspended, in a north and 
south position. All these and many other 
questions he treated by purely inductive and 
experimental methods. And now we are 
confronted by a surprising historical fact. 

Jt has been said 
that I.ord Bacon 
was a contem- 
porary of I >r. 
Gilbert. One 
w o u 1 d have 
thought that he 
would have hail- 
ed with generous 
and enthusiastic 
delight such a 
conspicuous ex- 
ample of the in- 
ductive method 
But no. On the 
contrary, in his 
Nov urn Organ- 
urn , he severely 
condemns Gil- 
bert’s great 
work, singling it 
out as a pecul- 
iarly striking in- 
stance of incon- 
clusive reason- 
ing, and of truths 
distorted by preconceived fancies. Else- 
where he alludes to the “ electric energy 
concerning which Gilbert has told us so many 
fables." It has been well said, “ a century 
and a half later, as we shall see, these 4 fab- 
les ’assumed the form of realities. The 
.sweeping censure »f so high an authority 
seems to have produced its natural effect, 
and may have had much to do in mater- 
ially retarding the development of the in- 
fant science.” But this was not the only 



WILLIAM GILBERT. 



46 


THE PHONOGRAM. 


* instance of Lord Bacon’s failure to recog- 
nize the best inductive labors of his own 
time, for4nrr«jccted the Copernican theory 
as well. 

But science recognizes no boundary lines, 
knows no provincial prejudices; and where 
English Bacon failed to recognize a fellow- 

• countryman’s merit, Italian Galileo said of 
De Magnete and its writer, “ I extremely 
admire and envy this author. I think him 
worthy of the greatest praise for the many 
new and true observations that he has made, 
to the disgrace of so many vain and fabling 
authors, who write not from their own 
knowledge only, but repeat everything they 
hear from the foolish vulgar, without at- 
tempting to satisfy themselves of the same 
by experience — perhaps that they may not 
diminish the size of their books." 

Posterity has reversed Lord Bacon’s un- 
merited censure and confirmed Galileo’s 
encomiums, and the fame of William Gil- 
bert, like that of every true scientist, will 
continue to grow brighter and brighter. 

- — ■ — ■ 

Electricity in Place of Steam. 

Thf. rossibility of electricity being usei| 
as the inotive |>ower for railroads in thpi 
future is assuming an interesting condition 
Stations may be located some fort) 5 or fifty 
miles apart, which will be run by large en- 
gines, and from recent, tests it is found that 
an electric motor will mount a grade of 
more than fifty per cent. Not only on rail- 
roads, but on the ocean steamers will a 
new era be inaugurated when electricity is 
introduced. The advantages lieing a saving 
of expense, higher rate of speed, and the 
danger of accidents decreased. 

. • • 

Lovers of statistics will find something 
of interest in the fact that about ten million 
incandescent electric lamps will be made in 

-the United States during 1S91. They will 

• • 

involve the use of 125,000 ounces of platin- 
um, which costs :\t present §20 per ounce. 


The Telegraph in War. 


all we know to 
the contrary, the 
general of the 
future will be a 
quiet man at the 
end of a tele- 
graph wire. To 
a certain extent 
this description 
applied to Field- 
Marshal Von 
Moltke. But it will be still truer of the 
successful leader in the next European 
war. A recent dispatch from London 
says: “An elaborate system of war tel- 
egraphing has been arranged between the 
Admiralty Department and the Post Office. 
Jt is now possible by this arrangement, upon 
short notice, to connect every telegraph sta- 
tion on the coast directly with the Admiral- 

tv office." 

• 

Quite a contrast betwen the old picture 
of “ the Duke of Wellington riding about 
amid fire and cannon balls,” and a military 
leader who does his work sitting at a desk 
in an office like a merchant, conning bulle- 
tins from his various subordinates as they 
come in on a “ticker," and dispatching or- 
ders, not bv aides-de-catr.p, but by telc- 
raphic dispatch, just as a speculator wires 
is broker to “ buy ten September." There 
s nothing dramatic about that way of con- 
ducting a campaign. The picturesqueness 
of poetry is knocked out of war, and it has 
Income a grim business even in its super- 
ficial aspects, as it always was in its under- 
lying reality. 



A New Device. 


Thf. insumgraph is a new- device for 
checking the time of arrivals of employees 
at a factory or other premises, and unlike 
those already in use, it cannot be deceived 
except by forging the handwriting, for it 
takes the signature of the employee. 





AN ELASTIC ACCUMULATOR. 


NOVEL DEVICES THAT ARE FACILITATING MAN’S WORK AND PROMOTING THE 

world's PROGRESS. 


A N elastic battery, just invented by Mr. 

Emile Reynier, isdescril>ed hyL’Electri- 
cun . It consists of sixteen elements set up 
in pockets or flexible wallets. They are 
placed flat against each other and tightly 
compressed between two still backs that are 
drawn toward each other by rubber springs. 

A bridge-like frame made of hard wood, 
p.nd covered with a preparation against 
water, built over the middle of the appa- 
ratus, serves as a handle, by means of which 
the battery can be hung up or carried about 
according to 
req uirement. 

The springs 
impress an ar- 
tificial elastic-. 

it v on the ac- 
0 

live solids, 
thus enabling 
the battery to 
attain a high 
degree of spe- „ 
cific power 
and gjeat spe- 
cific capacity. 

The Steady 
compression 
of the plates 

or backs against the insulators and re- 
ceivers secures these most important parts 
against breakage and* shocks. Each couple 
is corked with an elastic insulated stopple. 
The following data ^re given by the in- 
vent*^ for th£ -couple battery which he 
cal I s chtpal-hturt ( horse - hour ) : Electro- 

motive power, 32 volts ^ Discharge of avail- 
aljle jxjtential, 28 volts; Intensity of th£ cur- 
rent of discharge. 3 to 6 amperes; Normal 
available- power, 150 watts; Voltaic cajxacity 
alxuit 30 am peres-hour; Available energy 
about 740 watts-hour. The exterior dimen- 
sions are (over all): Length 0.40 metre; 
Width 0.30; Height 0.30. Total bulk, with- 
out the case, 36 cubic decimetres. Total 

. . ' -47 


weight, without the case, 50 kilograms; 
Weight per kilowatt, 330 kilograms; Weight 
per kiio watt-hour, 67 kilos; Volume per 
kilowatt, 240 cubic decimetres; Volume per 
kilowatt-hour, 49 do. 

Mrs. Mary Lowell, best known as the 
“ Electrical Star,” has turned her love for 
electrical engineering to practical account. 
Being without a servant, she determined to 
try whether the kitchen fire could not l>e 
lighted by means of a tame flash of elec- 
tricity, so to 
speak, anil 
have it well 
started Indore 
she got up her- 
self. She pre- 
pared wires to 
and from her 
l>ed— head to 
the kitchen 
grate, thus 
completing an 
electric cur- 
rent with the 
aid of a small 
battery, and 
all that then 

remained to be done was to so “build” the 
fire that the materials should become easily 
ignitible. B 

The wires were connected by a piece of 
plat i nil m.and round this was loosely wrapped 
what firework-makers call “ lighting paper." 
Over this again was strewn some tissue 
paper, upon it placed a wheel of firewood 
and on the latter the coal. 

At 7 in the morning, when the fire had to * 
be lit, the electricity was turned on. The 
platinum lit the lighting paper, then the 
tissue, the tissue the firewood, and the fire- 
wood the coal. On descending to the kitch- 
en the kettle \\*as boiling and the place com- 
fortably warm. 



r 


A Remarkable Experiment in Phonographic and 
Telephonic Transmission between New 
York and Philadelphia. 

This experiment was shown by Mr. Will- 
iam J. Hammer in his lecture upon 44 Edi- 
son and his Inventions,” delivered !>efore 
the Franklin Institute, February 4, 1SS9. 
It employed two Edison phonographs, two 
Edison carlxrn telephones (transmitters), 
two Edison motograph receivers or loud 
speaking telephones, two induction coils, 
two sets of batteries and -pne hundred 
and three miles of long-dista 
wire, six miles of which was 
and underwater cable. 

It will be observed that th £ sounds, 
which consisted of talking, singing and 
cornet playing, were transmitted through 
the air five times, and were transmitted 
through no less than thirteen mediums from 
the speaker and musician in New York to 
the audience in Philadelphia. 

These mediums included vocal chords, 
cornet, air, glass, iron and mica diaphragms, 
carlion buttons, stylus of steel, palladium- 
faced peris, hydrogen gas (evolved between 
pen and surface of chalk), wax and chalk 
cylinders and copper wire. 

The physical conditions of the sound- 
waves were changed no less than twenty- 


one times in transmission, as follows: (1) 
Air waves produced by vibration of vocal 
chords in speakers throat or by the cornet 
(2) Vibrations of a diaphragm. (3) Un- 
dulations in wax. (4) Vibrations of a dia- 
phragm. (5) Varying pressures in a carbon 
button. (6) A pulsating electric current. 
(7) An undulating magnetic*fqrce. (8) Al- 
ternating electric currents. (9) a varying 
force of adhesion. (10) Vibrations of a 
diaphragm. (11) Sound-waves. (12) Vi- 
brations of a diaphragm. (13) Undulations 
in wax. (14) Vibrations of a diaphragm. 

(15) Varying pressures in a carbon button. 

(16) A pulsating electric current (17) An 
undulating magnetic force. (iS) Alter- 
nating electric currents. (19) A varying 
force of adhesion. (20) Vibrations of a 
diaphragm. (21) Sound-waves translated 
into words by the auditory nerves of the 
hearers. 

The experiment shows three of Mr. Edi- 
son’s remarkable inventions working in 
juxtaposition; /*. e. his carbon transmitter, 
his motograph receiver and his phonograph. 

It is also interesting to note that at the 
time of the a bovo- mentioned lecture, that 
by means of transmitters placed upon the 
stage, the lecture was listened to by people 
in some fourteen different places. Music 
and talking were transmitted by the Phono- 
graph over the telephone to Buffalo, Roches- 
ter, Boston, Syracuse, New York, Orange 
and elsewhere, from the Franklin Institute 
stage, through the courtesy of the Long 
Distance Telephone Company, of New 
York, who kindly placed their lines at Mr. 
Hammer's disposal for these original ex- 
periments. 


ru:e telephone 
under-ground 


THE PHONOGRAM. 


49 


In addition to the above experiments Mr. 
Hammer conducted some of a somewhat 
similar nature during the Paris Exposition, 
at the residence of M. Louis Rau, the oc- 
casion l>eir.g an informal gathering of the 
electrical section of the jury, of which M. 
Rau was a member, his handsome residence 
which is lit with the incandescent light, and 
is connected with the Opera by telephone, 
was, upon the occasion referred to also, put 
in connection with the Edison Phonograph 


upstairs, where it was recorded, after which 
it was retransmitted downstairs, and record- 
ed again upon the last half, of the cylinder 
it originally started from. The experiment 
was successful although the final repro- 
duction was very faint owing to the hasty 
arrangements. • Another very interesting 
experiment whicli was carried out while 
at Paris, which opens up another new field 
for the phonographs, was the sending off 
phonograms attached to |>arachutcs from a 



Pavilion in the Palais des Machines, and by 
means of phonographs talking, singing; 
bugle-calls, etc., were transmitted across the 
city through the telephones, and were plain- 
ly audible all over the room. 

An interesting experiment was shown in 
which pinging, talking, and other sounds 
made upon one -half of a cylinder of a 
pltbft6£*nplr "'situated in the parlor was sent 
through^ a telephone line to a phonograph 



balloon during a trip made by him of over 
100 miles from Paris. As the result of his 
experiments, Mr. Hammer feels certain 
that this method of sending dispatches from 
lalloons in time of war is very feasible, and 
presents points of utility and value superior 
to the carrier-pigeon service. He found 
by properly proportioning and weighting the 
jiarachutes they could be dropped with con- 
siderable exactitude. 


THE TELEPHONE IN PARIS. 


\ 



NTIL within the last year 
the'price of public service 
has been 1,200 francs; it 
“ is now 600 francs. For- 
merly subscribers had to 
* 

go to headquarters to 
pay; at the present time 
their bills wfll be collected ^t their own of- 
fices for an additional charge of 25 cen- 
times. On Octol>er 1, 1SS9, there were 
6.30b subscribers; in a year there were 
7,Soo. The disturbances in the lines were 
2,000 a month; of these only 55 or 60 were 
in the subways, or about a.75 per hundred 


subscribers. In 1887-88 more interruptions 
occurred, because the lines had been already 
seven or eight years in use. and were very 
defective; but at the beginning of 18S9 the 
cables were repaired, and all the defective 
parts removed. The Department is now 
about to inaugurate a large number of cables 
of 7 double conductors each, so as to con- 
nect several offices with each other, and thus 
shorten the time of communication, which is 
still pretty long. The night tariff has also 
l)een revised, and is now 30 centimes for or- 
dinary conversation, and 20 centimes to sub- 
scribers per 1 00 kilometres or about 1 60 miles. 


4 



The First Typewriter 


preparing copy for the printer, is becoming 
almost universal — in? fact, the United Press 
Association, and many of the syndicates 
which furnish a large amount of matter for 
publication, refuse to receive “copy ” unless 
transcribed by the typewriter. The saving of 
time both to the writer of the MSS., and the 
facility with which it may be examined, and 
set up in type, is a very important matter to 
the publisher, while the chances of its ac- 
ceptance are increased. 


\ MODEL of the first writing machine made 

exhibited a short time 
since. It was patented in 1S43 by a man 
named Charles Thurber, yf Massachusetts, 
and is a really amusing affair in its very clum- 
siness. It consists of a wheel al>out a foot in 
diameter which turns horizontally upon a 
central pivot; the rim of the wheel is bored 
with twenty-five holes. in each one of which 
is a rod bearing at the top a glass letter and 
at the bottom a similar letter of steel. The 
paper sheet is so arranged that the line to be 
printed is under the nyn of this wheel, and 
the letter wanted is rswung into place by 
turning the wheel ; \Vhyi in place, a rod 
bearing it is depressed uiitil the steel letter 
or type touches the paper. I should say 
that even the fastest operator could not 
write more than half as fast as a man with 
a pen. Vet it was a writing machine, and 
Thurber succeeded in getting people to in- 
vest §15,000 in this curious device. At 
present there are no less than forty-seven 
dilferent kinds of typewriters made and 
sold in this country, and in New York City 
alone there are said to be more than 3.000 
expert operators, making a living by type- “You have no idea of the number of type- 
writing. writing machines stolen from the offices of 

* ^ * ” professional men,” said a prominent busi- 

W mi most of the newspapers and maga- - ness-man. “ Only a day or two ago I had 
zincs the use of the typewriting machine for a funny case reported to me. A prominent 


s cou 


If there were as many phonographs in 
existence as there are typewriting machines 
at the present moment, the correspondence 
of thousands of people would be effected by 
the transmission of their own voices in the 
place of their own handwriting. 

When the thirty or forty companies al- 
ready organized apply their energies to the 
introduction of the phonograph, so that it 
shall be as common in the household as the 
writing machine, its usefulness will l>ecome 
epidemic, and where one instrument is found 
at the present lime, a thousand will be found 
hereafter. 




THE PHONOGRAM. 


5i 


lawyer — a judge — and his typewriter, the 
one who operates the machine, went out to 
lunch, and left the office unprotected. After 
a nice, appetizing lunch the young clerk re- 
turned to the office, and was filled with con- 
sternation to find his writing-machine gone. 
With breathless ha*te he rushed out to tell 
his principal, and they hurried back as fast 
as possible. But irpagine the clerk’s sur- 
prise when he discovered that during his 
second absence the thief had returned, and 
taken the handsome cabinet desk away. The 
loss was immediately reported to me, and as 
we keep a record of the number of every ma- 
chine sold, we soon traced the thief, and got 
the machine and the desk. Never a week 
passes but some one rejwrts the loss of a 
machine, with a request that a lookout l>e 
kept by our men, who are always on the go, 
and know every machine in the districts 
which they cover. It is not an easy matter 
to steal a machine and escape detection if 
•the thief remains with it in the city. Some 
time repairs will be needed, and the num- 
ber will expose the criminal. My experi- 
ence is # that of every other big type'.*riter 
company in the city.” 

^ Thk possibilities of the typewriter are 
significantly illustrated in two ways: First, 
a deaf-dumb-and-blind young man, now in 
one of the New York institutions, is enabled 
. to communicate with the outside world with 
as muqh freedom as if he could see like the 
rest of tts. The subject of dictation or con- 
• versatiun is communicated by touches on 
the back of his hand. A simple device an- 
nounces to the writer when the end of the 
line has l>een reached. The second great 
way in which the typewriter has been em- 
ployed is connecting its key with a battery 
and printing it^ matter mites away. In 
a little while we shall have a typewriter 
more perfect than any other which does 
the work in shorthand. The wonders 
of mechanism seem only to just have 
begun. 


OW the Pho- 
nographist al- 
most leads ^the 
speaker, because, 
in a measure, he 
anticipates what 
words are coming 
out of his mouth. 

This method 
of reporting is 
swifter than ste- 
nography. There 
is no question 
that rapid speaking may l»e more faithfully 
reported by the phonograph than by the 
shorthand method. Newspapers in the fu- 
ture will use the phonograph -man a great 
deal where they now use the shorthand-man. 
The cylinders need not necessarily be writ- 
ten off to make copy for the compositor. The 
reporters may l>e sent direct to the com|X)s- 
ing-room. Just think what this means in 
cases where time is short and presses are 
waiting. ** 

A typewriting machine will shortly 
l>c introduced to the public which combines 
new features of importance not found in any 
other machine. This machine, which is now 
l>eing extensively used in London and Paris, 
will be called the Bar-lock, and in our next 
issue a full description of it will be given. 

A new typewriting machine has been in- 
vented, making letters which the blind can • 
understand. It is made under the “ point M 
system, and has many improvements in the 
construction and arrangement of parts in the 
carriage, feeding, spacing, and embossing 
mechanism. It is the invention of a Texan 
lady. 

Another new machine, also the invention 
of a Texan, consists of a keyboard carnage 
pivoted oqa threaded shaft: in a light frame 
an inking apparatus and mechanism moves 
the carriage along the shaft. This machine 
is small enough to be carried in the pocket. 



52 


THE PHONOGRAM. 


Phonograph Chat. 


* Mr. Edison hinted at some experiments which 
* he breads to make to determine, if possible, if 
certain insects emit sounds which are inaudible to 
the human car because of the rapidity of the vi- 
brations of the sound waves. He will place them 
in the diaphragm for a few moments with the 
phonograph revolving at a very high speed, and 
then, with a greatly reduced speed, endeavor to 
reproduce any sound that may be recorded. 


The Automatic Phonograph Exhibition Com- 
pany obtained a temporary injunction on the 
N. A. P. Co., the 13th of December. 1S90, re- 
straining the latter company from selling phono- 
graphs, without restricting their use in connection 
with a nickel-in-the-slot device. % The case was 
argued in the U. S. Circuit Court before Judge 
Lacombc, and on the 21st inst. lie handed down 
his decision continuing the injunction, but ex- 
pressly reserving the graphophone. 


• There has been much rumor about a new ma- 
chine — but we know for a fact that while such a 
thing is in contemplation, yet it will be some timc~ 
before it will be ready for the market, as it will 
have to be submitted to thorough trial to prove 
its superiority over existing types ami then the 
making of special tools, etc., all takes time. 

Mr. AfCUST X. S.\)iry»X, General Manager of 
the New England Phonograph Co., visited the’eity 
last week, and reports business booming in the 
New England States. They have placed over 
fifty automatic machines, anti are reaping a har- 
vest. daily in the country towns. Mr. S.uip- 
son lias had large experience in thg phonograph 
business mid is rapidly developing a large trN*Jc 
in the Eastern States. 

Mk. V. A. Ashcroft has charge of the exhibit 
lion department of the .New England Phonograph 
Co. He exhibited the phonograph at Melrose, 
Mass., before a very large audience, and was 
highly congratulated on the success of the affair. 
Another exhibition was given in the Hawes Street 
Ciiitarian Church, which was repeated four times 
by request. 


A new Phonograph Company.— T he Arkansas 
Edison Phonograph Company have filed arti- 
cles entitling them to the right to manufacture, 
purchase, lease or otherwise obtain the Edison 
Phonograph, and to lease or sell State rights of 
the invention in this State. The capital stork is 
^10.000. subscribed by X. Kupfcrle.W. G. Brown, 
andll. G. Allis. This firm has fitted up comfort- 
able quarters on the first fl«H>r of the Allis Block. 
Mr.' Brown has charge of the business. 

t 


The many friends and the electric trade gener- 
ally will be glad to learn that Mr. A. O. Tate, 
secretary to Mr. Edison, is rapidly recovering 
from his recent illness. 

Tllk Texas Phonograph Co. control a nickel-in- 
the-slot device which will soon be put on the 
market. 

The Missouri Phonograph Co. have opened 
several new offices in different parts of their terri- 
tory and sav. they feel very much encouraged over 
the phonograph prospects. 

The cutting needle and knife and the reproduc- 
ing needle arc now made of sapphire or diamond. 
A single diaphragm of glass is used, that being 
found the most satisfactory, although diaphragms 
of iron, steel, aluminium and other sul>stanccs 
answer well. The phonograph has been greatly 
simplified, and is rendered very sensitive indeli- 
cate sounds, bv the new sapphire needles and the 
new cylinders. The machine i« geared so that the 
cylinder will hold a long dictation. 

In the /’«*. ktt . 1 lagaziiu of la 18 is written an 
article purporting to look forward 500 years, ami 
giving among a list ol inventions then to lie com- 
pleted “ a machine to imitate the human voice 
which will be worked by machinery in the manner 
of a barrel organ. It will be called the vocal in- 
strument. ami will be used in the churches to read 
prayers." We have not waited the 500 years, but 
the plftmograph is perfected, ami though it has not 
been used to read prayers in churches, it fre- 
quently reproduces sermons of notoriety- loving 
parsons. 

At Budapesth a phonograph is now exhibited 
from which the voice of Louis Kossuth can be 
heard on payment of an entrance fee. The voice 
of the venerable revolutionist is described as still 
sonorous in spite of his great age. 

At the late meeting of the Metropolitan Stenog- 
rapher's Association held at the Club House. 
No. 95 I^xington Avc.. on January S, the utility 
and case with which the phonograph could be 
used was clearly demonstrated by an exhibition 
given by Miss M. E. Finley, of New York City, 
who in a severe test, rapidly ami accurately trans- 
crilicd on the Smith Premier Typewriter a diffi- 
cult article on physiology, dictated to the phono- 
graph. This nfcchine combines three features 
not found in other typewriters: Fir>t. the case 
with which the work is examined: second, the 
type-cleaning brush, by which the characters arc 
rapidly cleaned; third, the locking of the keys at 
the end of the line, thereby preventing the doub- 
ling of letters and unsightly errors. 


« 


THE PHONOGRAM. 


53 


The Meisterschaft System Taught by the 

Phonograph. 


. Thm Columbia PMOSOGBArH Co. 

or Mabylakd, Drlawa * r. a*d rttr . 

DOTBICT or CoiX'MBlA. 

627 E St.. N. \V., Washington, D. C.. 

January 19, 1891. 

• • - 

To the Editor 0/ The Phonogram: 

You deserve congratulation. The first 
issue shows peculiar, phonographic intelli- 
gence and enterprise. We have sent copies 
to all of our subscribers. . 

The local companies should profit by 
your editorial warning* not to lose sight of 
the commercial field while operating coin- 
slot phonographs. The coin-slot branch 
should be carefully managed; only the best 
records put on machines, which should al- 
ways be in j>erfect order. Nevertheless, 
managers should not forget that the prac- 
tical office and home use of the phono- 
graph can onl\^be developed by untiring 
effort, and is the permanent part of the 
business. 

Our latest new work in Washington is 
language-teaching. I)r. Richard S. Rosen- 
thal, the well-known author of the Mcister- 
schaft system* has come here to work with 
rtw- ColugifciA^Company. He has already 
given two free lectures on the subject, at 
one of which phonographs with language 
lessons upon them were shown. A number 
of students are'aiready engaged in this, the 
ideal way of mastering ay foreign language. 
Pupils are furnished with^ooks and pre- 
. pared cylinders tt> match. The method of 
study is to train eye and ear at the same 
time. A jmpil wi^h his lesson on the cylin- 
der can, byhearing it over and over again, 
master ! e pronunciation perfectly: while 
his eye*at the same^imc follows the printed 
text and he learns how the words ^ 00 k and 
are spelled. 

person who has a phonograph, we 
furnish a set of liooks with cylinders to 
match, (about fifty) covering a year’s course 
for $50.00. Classes of not less than ten are 
equipped with a phonograph for a year, ten 


sets of books and one set of cylinders with 
ten-way hearing-tube, for $30.00 each. 

'Phis use of the phonograph has been 

# 

presented in literature for a long time, but 
has not l>eforc l>een taken up practically 
and earnestly. 

The demands on our musical department 
are so great that we are constantly enlarg- 
ing it. As this is the only company having 
access to the President’s band, we are kept 
very busy filling orders which come from 
all parts of the country. 

Our commercial business is making rapid 
gains. Since your last issue we have in- 
creased the numlier of machines in the 
United States Senate, the Census Office and 
the National Museum, while the private list 
has been largely augmented., 

I enclose clipping from the Evening Star 
of January 17, relative to the use of the 
phonograph in armories for drilling pur- 
poses. Experiments are also l>eing made 
with a view to the use of the machine in 
connection with calisthenics. 

We have many applications for the pur- 
chase outright of machines, and believe the 
selling policy will help materially. 

Our Baltimore office is full of business, 
and reports constantly increasing interest in 
the phonograph for the office ami the home. 
We have b**gun language-teaching there also. 

Edward D. Easton, 

/’resident. 

The Phonograph Abroad. 


The Automatic Phonograph is proving profit- 
able to those interested io this application of (he 
invention. The effort to push the instrument in 
South America was. at last accounts, far from 
successful. Now ami then, some one has a story 
to tcfl illustrating the curious properties of the 
instrument. One large importing house has a 
phonograph that speaks half a dozen languages. 
It is whispered that a large concern interested in 
the manufacture of the instruments took to using 
them in the place of stenographers only after some 
one had pointed out the inconsistency of any other 
course. 


I 


54 


THE PHONOGRAM. 


Bu5ine55 Su$$e5li°n5. 




.* * * In many of ihe batteries in use at the 
present time the high internal resistance causes ex- 
penditure of current; local action , resulting in the 
waste of material and curtailment of the life of 
the cell; and polarization which reduces the E. 
M. F. to such an extent as to render these bat- 
teries incapable of furnishing sufficient current to 
do the work, especially if kept on closed circuit 
for any length of time. 

In producing a perfect galvanic cell, the aim is 
to secure low internal resistance and constancy of 
E. M. F. (or in other words absence of local ac- 
tion and polarization). The Edison- Lalande Battery 
has a type of galvanic cell which meets all re- 
quirements. and is suited to every class of work. 

The Edison- Islamic cell is a modification^or 
rather a development of the battery invented some 
years ago by Messrs. De Islamic & Chaperon. 
The Lalande-Chaperon cell attracted considerable 
attention at the time of its appearance, on account 
of its comparative simplicity, its low internal re- 
sistance and constancy of action. In the Edison - 
Lalandc the loss by local action is less than one- 
half of one per cent., and the internal resistance 
of the 300 ampere-hour cell is only .o*y of an 
ohm. When we come to consider that the major- 
ity of lotteries now in use have an internal resist- 
ance varying from 1 to 5 ohms, the great gain in 
this respect is at once apparent, it being obvious 
that the internal resistance of the Edison- La lan tie 
cell is forty times less than that of its competitor. 

* * * With the increase of type-writing 
machines the New York Carbon and Transfer 
Paper Co. have kept pace with the demand for 
Carbon Papers and Ribbons of a fine grade and 
quality, and have also established agencies in the 
principal cities of the United States and Canada. 
The goods manufactured ami sold are guifanteed 
toJbc equal to any in the market RyAfons of 
cCTra length, and all supplies for the typewriter 
may be obtained at the shortest notice. * * * 


JIuHior5 Putli5ker5. 


In this department vc give short reviews of 
such Xero Books as publishers may send us. We 
invite publishers to favor us with their recent 
publications, especially such as are related to 
Electricity theoretical or applied. 

A Dictionary of Electrical Words, Terms, and 
Phrases, by Edwin J. Houston. A. M.; 656 pages, 
397 illustrations; cloth binding. Price, postage 
prepaid to any part of the world, $2.50. The W. 
J. Johnston Co., Ld., Times Building. New York. 
^iSSq. 

It rarely happens that ademand is so entirely and 
satisfactorily supplied, as is the case by the timely 
issue of Prof. Houston's Electrical Dictionary. 
It is a book that ought to find a place on the refer- 
ence shelf of every professional man, wlether he 
be lawyer, editor, physician, teacher, or simply a 
person of general culture. The applications ol 
electricity have become so widespread, and arc 
being so rapidly extended into every department 
of daily life, that in order to understand the con- 
stant allusions of the daily and periodical press to 
these conditions, such a book of reference is a 
necessity. The literary part is clear and concise, 
while the illustrations leave nothing to be desired. 
In a word, it has no rival. 


* * * Among the many -houses in thisjbity 
engagc<| in the business of reproducing by electri- 
city and photography plates for printing purposes, 
is the " Art -Photo Etching Co.," located in the 
Raub Building, corner Fulton and Nassau Sts., 
this city, of which Messrs. Ladd & Sheldon arc 
the active partners. This company is rapidly 
coming to the front, and has a reputation for fur- 
nishing fine work at very reasonable rates. * * * 


# * * We are reaching a period in the de- 
velopment of electricity when every fact devel- 
oped and every thought contributed for publica- 
tion is awaited with the keenest interest. 

The newspapers of the day arc coming to recog- 
nize the wonderful changes resulting from dis- 
covery and invention in the arts ami sciences, so 
that they freely give entire departments to this 
important subject. 

In order, however, to obtain a consensus 
of that which is most important, we cannot do 
'better than recommend to our readers the Elec- 
trical World. * * * 


Tiif. A. B. C of Electricity is a practical hand- 
book of value to all interested in the applica- 
tion of Electrical work. It combines in small 
space special information on the different branches 
of the science, ami is endorsed by Mr. Thomas 
A. Edison. Published by -the J. W. Lovell Co. 


We call the attention of our readers that we 
have made a special arrangement with the Cosmo- 
politan Magazine, by which they can obtain both 
the Phonogram ami the Cosmopolitan for $2.40, the 
price of the larger magazine alone. To any one 
forwarding their name and address before January 
I, 1892, to this office, sample copies will be sent. 


Ik those who have in contemplation the intro- 
duction of " Electrical Appliances " would consult 
an experienced man who is fully informed as to 
the many systems and apparatus now in use in 
connection with the telegraph, the telephone, the 
arc and incandescent electric light, the messenger 
call, fire alarm, etc., much time and money would 
be saved. So rapidly have new ideas been de- 
veloped. that it is an utter impossibility (without 
giving much time ami thought to the subject), to 
decide without the aid of an expert. Such a man 
is Mr. William J. Hammer, of Temple Court, 
New York, who had charge of the Edison Display 
at the Paris Exposition, and who has published a 
handsomely illustrated l>ook, which gives an idea 
of the scope ami beauty of the exhibit. Mr. 
Hammer has had a very large experience as con- 
sulting and supervising engineer, ami the special 
endorsement of him by Mr. Thomas A. Edison, 
sustains his reputation, and the high opinion in 
which his judgment on electrical matters is re- 
garded By the press and many prominent electri- 
cians. 




» 


WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY. 


TESTIMONIAL LETTERS FROM OFFICERS OF THE PHONOGRAPH COMPANIES OF 

. THE UNITED STATES. 


IN ORDER TO SHOW THE CHARACTER OF THE WELCOME ACCORDED Yo “THE PHONOGRAM.’ 
WE PRESENT THE FOLLOWING EXTRACTS FROM SOME OF THE MANY HUNDRED 
LETTERS RECEIVED SINCE THE ISSUE OF THE FIRST NUMBER. 


From Laboratory of Thomas A. Edison. 

Orangk. N. J., January 2, 1891. 

I have received the first number o^The Phono, 
gram, which you kindly sent to me. and 1 am very 
much pleased with it. From both a literary and 
typographical point of view the magazine is ex- 
cellent, and you have my best wishes for its fu- 
ture success. Mr. Edison wishes five copies sent 
him monthly. 

Yours very truly. 

A. O. Tate. 

Private Secretary to Thomas A. Edison. 


New York, January 19, 1S91. 

I have read the magazine, and was very much 
pleased with it. I think it will be a great success. 
• *Very truly. 

T. R. Lombard. 

Vice- Pres' t of N. A. Phonograph Co. 


New York. December 8. 1890. 
. I wish ygar paper. The Phonogram, the great- 
est success. Yours very truly, 

Robert G. Ingersoll. 

* . • . 

4 - m Np.w York, December 28, 1890. 

It is with pleasure I acknowledge the receipt of 
The Phqnqgram this morning. I have looked it 
over, or. shall Lsay, ground out the cylinder. The 
publication is very spicy, popularly scientific, etc. 

Very truly yours, 

A. D. Vance. 
American Telephone Co. 


Buffalo, N. Y., Jan. 21. 1591. 

We are^all mucl^>ica*ed with the paper here in 
\hc office, afid will be glad to see the next num- 
ber. Yours truly. 

If. D. PlLSlFER. 

Sew York Phonograph Co. 




St. Louis, January 9, 1891. 
W aYe’ certainly very highly pleased with the 
general make-up of The Phonogram, and we wish 
you to send one hundred more copies of the next 
isftkc. Very truly yours, 

1 . C. Wood. 

Gen. Manager of Missouri Phonograph Co. 


Jacksonville. Fla., January 3, 1891. 
I was much pleased with the first copy of The 
Phonogram, and feel certain that it will be of im- 
mense advantage to the phonograph interests. 

I will do all I can for the success of the mag- 
Yours truly, 

T. F. Gaines. 

Supt. of Florida Phonograph Co. 


Pittsburgh, Pa., January 19. 1891. 
We think The Phonogram is a good idea, and 
are desirous of seeing it succeed; and will do 
everything in our power to help it along. 

Yours truly. 

Henry F. Gilg, 

:'y of Western Penn. Phonograph Co. 


Boston. January 6, 1891. 

We shall certainlv look with pleasure to the 
publication of The Phonogram, and read it with 
interest. Yours truly. 

Aug. N. Sampson. 

Gen. Manager of New England Phonograph Co. 


Galveston. Texas. January 2, 1891. 

We have received The Phonogram, ami beg 
leave to congratulate you upon its appearance. 
We think it will prove very useful in our work. 
Yours truly. 

Thos. Conyngtos, 

Business Mgr. of Texas Phonograph Co. 


• New York. January 5, 1891. 

I shall be happy to do all in my power to ad- 
vance the interests of The Phonogram. 

Yours very truly. 

Richard T. Haines. 
Scc'y N. Y. Phonograph Co. 


Atlanta. Ga.. January 17, 1891. 

The general idea of your Phonogram is excel- 
lent. and we believe it should have the hearty and 
unanimous support of all the Phonograph compa- 
nies throughout the United States, and should re- 
ceive encouragement from all who are interested 
in the phonograph in any way. 

Very truly, 

F. E. Clarkson, 

, Supt. of Georgia Phonograph Co. 


. ?? 
t 





VOICED BY THE PRACTICAL MEN OF AMERICA. 

_fi 

After These Who Can Doubt? 

v * * * 

Mr. Jesse Lippjncott — My Dear Friend: The Carriage Monthly, 

I am glad to say to you that I have practically Ware Bros., Publishers. 

tested the application of the phonograph to the 1113 Market St., P. O. Box 2769. 

linotype, and conceive that it will be an important Philadelphia, April 4th, 1S90. 

combination. I can think of nothing more enter- Eastern Pennsylvania Phonograph Co.,Phila. 

prising than to see a reporter rushing in suddenly Dear Sirs ; 

with a very important item at the last minute be- We noto we have been using the Edison phono- 
fore the paper goes to press, telling the story of graph one month to-day; that during this period 
thi* phonograph, and having it immediately trans- the writer dictated to one instrument eleven hun- 

ferred to type a great deal quicker than he could dred and sixty-eight (1168) letters, all of which 

think of writing it, much less having it composed, were transcribed correctly by the lady typewriter 

justified, proved and made ready for the j$ress. from the second machine in her charge. 

It is a new. day that dawns for the phonograph, The success we have had with our first month's 
for typography and for the world at large. service with the phonograph is conclusive lojis, 

Erastus Wiman. for our business, it is proving most satisfactory. 


(Copy) 

St. Louis, Jan. 5, 1891. 

The Missouri Phonograph Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Gentlemen : 

Herewith I inclose my check in payment of bill 
for rent of battery for second quarter ending 
March 31st, 1 89 1. 

The best recommendation that I can give the 
phonograph is to say to you that I want another 
of them to assist me in getting Through with my 
work. I will therefore ask you to deliver me an- 
other complete outfit similar to the one which I 
have. Bring it to my house. 

I shall want at least five dozen cylinders with 
the machine, and table; also soyic cases of which 
we will give you information when you call. 
Yours very truly, Seymour D. Thompson. 


House of Representatives, 
Washington. D. C., Oct. 1, 1890. 
Mr. t. D. Easton, President of Columbia Pho- 
nograph Company. 

Dear Sir ; . • 

The session of Congress now kejAg over, I wish 
to return my graphophone, rental from your 
company the latter part of last November. In 
doing so I wish to say that I have found this ma- 
chine of much value indisposing of ml large cor- 
respondence; that my clerk, who is npt a stenog- 
rapher. but uses the typewriter, transcribes my 
dictation accurately and readily; aniK that from 
point of convenience and time and money-sav- 
ing. the new method is a decided improvement 
over the shorthand amanuensis in many respects. 

On my return to Washington at the beginning 
of the next session I hope to again use the ma- 
chine. Yours truly, J. A. Pickler. 


W. M. McCormick, 

Wholesale White Pine & Hemlock Lumber. 
Girard Building, Broad and Chestnut Sts., 
Philadelphia, April 22, 1S90. 
Eastern Pf.nna. Phonograph Co. 

Gentlemen v 

I have used your phonograph since June ist.and 
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business offices. Yours.truly, 

W. M. McCormick. 



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TWO YEARS AND A HALF 
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Dr. Deems, while a member of Mr. Edison’s Ex- 
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